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In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene (one from each parent).
Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence.
The term can also be applied to larger groups of organisms, as in "the adaptive radiation of mammals." adaptive strategies: A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale.
Species adapt when succeeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristics.
antibiotic resistance: A heritable trait in microorganisms that enables them to survive in the presence of an antibiotic.
artificial selection: The process by which humans breed animals and cultivate crops to ensure that future generations have specific desirable characteristics.analogous structures: Structures in different species that look alike or perform similar functions (e.g., the wings of butterflies and the wings of birds) that have evolved convergently but do not develop from similar groups of embryological tissues, and that have not evolved from similar structures known to be shared by common ancestors. Note: The recent discovery of deep genetic homologies has brought new interest, new information, and discussion to the classical concepts of analogous and homologous structures.